Standard Scottish English
There are various slightly different types of SSE. One typical variety is represented here and in our summary. Because the Scottish English vowel system is considerably different from GB, it is transcribed here with a different set of phonemic symbols. There is nothing like the same pattern of difference between short and long vowels as there is in GB, so length marks are not used on the vowels.
By contrast with its distribution in GB, /r/ in Scottish English often occurs pre-consonantally and pre-pausally (usually where an <r> is present in the spelling but not pronounced in GB). It varies between a flap [ɾ] and a [ɹ] and sometimes is present only by colouring the preceding vowel. The sequence /hw/ is used in words beginning <wh> like which, whistle, and dark [ɫ] is used where a clear [l] would be used in GB, e.g. at the beginning of words like learn and like.
Correspondence between typical SSE and GB vowels:
GB /i:/. SSE /i/ relatively short and undiphthongised.
GB /ɪ/. SSE /ɪ/ similar but may be more open.
GB /e/. SSE /ɛ/ similar, but represented by a different symbol because /e/ in SSE denotes the monophthong which corresponds to GB /eɪ/
GB /a/ and /ɑː/. SSE does not make this distinction, the SSE vowel being near to GB /a/ but slightly backer.
GB /ʌ/. SSE /ʌ/ similar but more like /ə/
GB /ɔ:/ and /ɒ/. SSE /ɔ/, there is no regular distinction corresponding to that between GB /ɔː/ and /ɒ/, But the quality of SSE /ɔ/varies a lot.
GB /u:/ and /ʊ/. SSE /y/, there is no distinction corresponding to that between GB /u:/ and /ʊ/. The Scottish vowel is further forward than the English vowels and is more rounded.
GB /ə/. SSE /ə/ similar.
GB /eɪ/. SSE /eː/ a vowel near Cardinal 2 and only slightly diphthongised, if at all.
GB /aɪ/. SSE /aɪ/ similar.
GB /əʊ/. SSE /o:/ a vowel near Cardinal 7 and only slightly diphthongised, if at all.
GB /aʊ/. SSE /ɛʊ/. The starting-point is often fronter and more raised than in
GB /ɪə,ʊə,ɛː,ɜː/. These GB phonemes have no exact counterparts in SSE but correspond to sequences of a vowel followed by an /r/.
In this passage notice the flapped /r/ in Irvine and Morris while in course the /r/ is noticeable only as a colouring of the preceding vowel and in the name Gordon, where it might have been expected, it is not present at all. Notice too the /y/ in proved and the /hw/ in where. The second vowel in the name Cathcart may receive its longer and backer pronunciation under the influence of its pronunciation in GB.
I’m meeting up with greenkeeper Gordon Irvine with local golfer Donald Mackinnis.
So tell me more about what Tom Morris did and why he’s such a name …There had long been rumours of a Tom Morris course here on South Uist but until now no-one believed it existed. The discovery of a nineteenth century golf almanac proved that old Tom created a course here at the behest of Lady Cathcart, the owner of the island. After some careful detective work Gordon and Don located the exact site of the original course.
‘Now, Gordon, my idea of a golf course is something carefully manicured. Where is the golf course?’
aim mitɪŋ ʌp wɪð ɡrinkipə ɡɔdn ərvɪn wɪð lokl ɡɔlfə dɔnld məkɪnɪs
so tɛl mi mɔr əbɛʊt wɔt tɔm mɔrəs dɪd n waɪ hiz sʌʧ ə nem…..ðə həd lɔŋ bin ryməz əv ə lɔst tɔm mɔrəs kɔs hir ɔn saʊθ jyɪst bʌt ntɪl nɛʊ nowʌn bɪlivd ɪt ɪɡzɪstɪd ð dɪskʌvəri əv ə naɪntiːnθ sɛnʃəri ɡɔlf amənak pryv ðət ol tɔm krietɪd ə kɔrs hir at ðə bɪhɛst əv ledi kafkat ðɪ onər əv ðɪ aɪlənd aftə səm kɛrfl dɪtɛktɪv wərk ɡɔdn n dɔnl loketɪd ði ɪɡzak saɪt əv ðɪ ɔrɪʤɪnl kɔrs
nɛʊ ɡɔdn maɪ aɪdi əv ə ɡɔlf kɔrs ɪz sʌmθɪŋ kɛrfəli manɪkjyrd hwɛr ɪz ðə ɡɔlf kɔrs
Refer to the previous clip for general outline of Standard Scottish English. In this passage note front /y/ in St Andrews, new, Carnoustie, dune, move. Although in general length is not as distinctive of particular phonemes as it is in GB, there is considerable length variation, so four, parts, harsh, ball, course and rather all have relatively long vowels in this passage. An /r/ is sometimes only present in colouring the preceding vowel, e.g. work. Note the occasional phoneme in SSE /x/ (voiceless velar fricative) at the end of Dornoch.
Em... Well he was the original golf professional in St Andrews. He ...um... He won the open championship on four occasions. His most famous work would undoubtedly be the work he did on the old course, as we know, at St Andrews…the new…Prestwick, Carnoustie, Royal Dornoch. For decades after people came and studied his work and that then went into… other parts of the world to help design courses there. This is golf in its sheer raw state. And here it's about as much playing against the..the harsh elements as it is hitting a golf ball. You've got your classic dune system created by the Atlantic swell. They had no earth moving machinery back then. So they actually...they found and plotted the golf courses... through the natural terrain rather than trying to move anything.
ɛːm] …wel…hi wəz ði ərɪʤənl ɡɔlf prəfɛʃnl ət sənandryz hi [əmː] hi wʌn ði opən ʧampjənʃɪp ɔn fɔr əkeʒnz hɪz mos feməs wɔrk wəd ʌndaʊtli bi ðə wʌrk hi dɪd ɔn ði ol kɔs əz wi no ət sənandryz…ðə njy…[əː] prestwɪk kərnysti rɔɪl dɔrnəx fə dɛkedz aftə pipl kem ən stʌdɪd hɪz wɔrk ən ðat ðɛn wɛn ən ʌðə pats əðə wʌrəl tə..tə hɛlp dɪzaɪn kɔsɪz ðɛr ðɪs ɪz ɡɔlf ɪn ɪts ʃir rɔ stet an hir ɪts əbɛʊt mʌʧ plen əɡɛns ðə..ðə haʃ ɛlɪmənts əz ət ɪz hɪtn ə ɡɔlf bɔl jə ɡɔt jə klasɪk dyn sɪstəm krietɪd bə ði ətlantɪk swɛl ðe ad no ɛrθ myvɪn məʃinri bak ðɛn so ðe akʃli…ðe fɛʊnd ən plɔtɪd ðə ɡɔlf kɔsɪz θəry ðə naʧl təren raðə ðən traɪŋ tə myv ɛnəθɪn