Experimental Phonetics, Trinity Term 2021
Reference reading list

A. Specific to this term's experiment

Williams, B. (1999) The phonetic manifestation of word stress in Welsh. In G. Dogil, B. Williams and H. van der Hulst, eds. Word prosodic systems in the languages of Europe. Berlin, New York: Mouton. 311-334. Available online via SOLO, but also as a preprint: https://era.ed.ac.uk/bitstream/handle/1842/1033/Williams_Briony1998_a.pdf This 1999 chapter is more accessible online than earlier publications by Williams of much the same material, such as:

Williams, B. (1982) The problem of stress in Welsh. Cambridge Papers in Phonetics and Experimental Linguistics 1. [This is Williams' first publication of her work, in a Working Papers series that is not widely available]

Williams, B. (1986) An acoustic study of some features of Welsh prosody. In Catherine Johns-Lewis, ed. Intonation in Discourse. Beckenham: Croom Helm. 35-51. [This is the first formal published version of her study.]

Liu, Zirui (2018) Phonetics of Southern Welsh Stress. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 30.

Ball, M. J. (1989) The transcription of suprasegmentals in Welsh. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 19, 2, 89-96. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0025100300003893

Buczek-Zawiła, A. (2014) Everything must have its place: accent accommodation in Modern Welsh borrowings from English. Studia Linguistica Universitatis Iagellonicae Cracoviensis 131, 335-351. https://doi.org/10.4467/20834624SL.14.020.2727

B. Background reading

The experiment proposed for this term's work is an exercise in acoustic analysis. Nevertheless, some of the following readings from previous years' classes, even those that are concerned with articulatory methods, may be of some use for illustrating the general structure of papers in experimental phonetics.

Overview article on experimental phonetics:

Coleman, J. S. (forthcoming) Phonetics and Experimental Phonology, circa 1960-2000. To appear eventually, one day, in the Cambridge History of Phonetics.

Handouts and readings from my classes in previous years (general introduction to experimental phonetics)

a) Introduction to phonetics experiments

Moll and Daniloff (1971) Investigation of the Timing of Velar Movements during Speech. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 50, 678-684.

Feynman, R. P. (1995) Six Easy Pieces. Addison Wesley. Pp. 1-3, 23-26. [This is a nice piece about the way in which scientific experiments work.]

Ohala, J. J. (1986) Consumer's guide to evidence in phonology. Phonology Yearbook 3, 3-26.

Ohala, J. J. & Jaeger, J. J. (1986) Introduction. In J. J. Ohala & J. J. Jaeger (eds.), Experimental phonology. Orlando, FL: Academic Press. 1 - 12.

Ohala, J. J. (1992) The costs and benefits of phonological analysis. In P. Downing, S. D. Lima, & M. Noonan (eds.), The Linguistics of Literacy. Amsterdam; Philadelphia: J. Benjamins Pub. Co. 211-237.

Ohala, J. J. (1995) Experimental phonology. In John A. Goldsmith (ed.), A Handbook of Phonological Theory. Oxford: Blackwell. 713-722.

b) Experimental hygiene

Forced choice; subjects have tacit knowledge and awareness of acoustic cues that they are not explicitly aware of:
West, P. (1999) Perception of distributed coarticulatory properties of English /l/ and /r/. Journal of Phonetics 27, 4, 405-426. http://dx.doi.org/10.1006/jpho.1999.0102

Subjects' behaviour in speech perception experiments is biased by what they think the experiment wants to discover:
Goldinger, S. D. and T. Azuma (2003) Puzzle-solving science: the quixotic quest for units in speech perception. Journal of Phonetics 31, 305-320. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(03)00030-5

Subjects' behaviour in speech perception experiments is biased by cues in the situation where the experiment is carried out:
Hay, J. and K. Drager (2010) Stuffed toys and speech perception. Linguistics 48 (4), 865–892. https://doi.org/10.1515/ling.2010.027

c) Some important speech production experiments.

    Deconstructing Moll and Daniloff (1971)
    Ohala (1990)

   Respiratory activity

Draper, M. H., P. Ladefoged and D. Whitteridge (1960)  Expiratory Pressures and Air Flow During Speech. The British Medical Journal, Vol. 1, No. 5189 (Jun. 18, 1960), pp. 1837-1843. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2077/stable/25391726

Draper, M. H., P. Ladefoged and D. Whitteridge (1959) Respiratory muscles in speech. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 2, 16-27. This journal, now called Journal of speech, language, and hearing research, is available on-line through SOLO but not as far back as 1959. This paper is reprinted in Kent, R. D., B. S. Atal and J. L. Miller, eds. (1991) Papers in speech communication: speech production. Acoustical Society of America.

Ohala, J. J. (1990) Respiratory activity in speech. In W. J. Hardcastle and A. Marchal, eds. Speech Production and Speech Modelling. Kluwer. 23-53.

Video: Ohala, J. J. (1993) The whole body plethysmograph in speech research. https://archive.org/details/MeasuringSpeech1993

Lass, N.J. (1996) Principles of Experimental Phonetics. Mosby. Chapter 2.


van den Berg, J. (1958) Myoelastic-aerodynamic theory of voice production. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 1, 227-244. Reprinted in Kent et al. (1991). Not currently available via SOLO.

Hirose, H. and T. Gay (1972) The activity of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles in voicing control: an electromyographic study. Phonetica 25, 3, 140-164. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2095/10.1159/000259378

Lisker, L. and A. S. Abramson (1964) A cross-language study of voicing in initial stops: acoustical measurements. Word 20, 384-422. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2095/10.1080/00437956.1964.11659830

    Articulation and coarticulation

Lass ch. 1, 3 and 14, J. C. Catford (1977) Fundamental Problems in Phonetics chs. 7-10.

[As cited above] Moll, K. L. and R. G. Daniloff (1971) Investigation of the Timing of Velar Movements during Speech. JASA 50, 678-684. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:3728/doi/10.1121/1.1912683

Folkins, J. W. and J. H. Abbs (1975) Lip and jaw motor control during speech: responses to resistive loading of the jaw. Journal of Speech and Hearing Research 18, 207-220. Reprinted in Kent et al. (1991). Not currently available via SOLO.

Whalen, D. H. (1990) Coarticulation is largely planned. Journal of Phonetics 18, 3-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0095-4470(19)30356-0

d) Speech perception experiments: some classic examples

N. J. Lass ch. 8.

Cooper, F. S., P. C. Delattre, A. M. Liberman, J. M. Borst and L. J. Gerstman (1952) Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech Sounds. JASA vol. 24, no. 6. 597-606. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2095/10.1121/1.1906940

Delattre, P. C., A. M. Liberman and F. S. Cooper (1955) Acoustic Loci and Transitional Cues for Consonants. JASA vol. 27, no. 4. 769-773. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2095/10.1121/1.1908024

Miller, G. A. and P. E. Nicely (1955) An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants. JASA vol. 27, no. 2. 338-352. https://ezproxy-prd.bodleian.ox.ac.uk:2095/10.1121/1.1907526

Lisker, L. and A. S. Abramson (1970) The voicing dimension: some experiments in comparative phonetics. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Prague, 1967. Reprinted in Miller et al. (1991).


Lass, N.J. (1996) Principles of Experimental Phonetics. Mosby.

Catford, J. C. (1977) Fundamental Problems in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press.

Robson, C. (1973, 1983) Experiment, Design and Statistics in Psychology: an introduction. Penguin. A cheap, brief introduction.

Foster, J. J. and I. Parker (1995) Carrying out Investigations in Psychology. BPS Books (British Psychological Society.)