Observing and Recording Speech

1. Auditory - impressionistic method: IPA transcription.
2. Visual examinations:

3. Radiographic techniques - especially useful for articulatory measurements. 4. Electronic examinations: 4.1 Electromechanical methods employ transducers to convert movement to changes in some electrical quantity (resistance, inductance, capacitance) yielding measurable changes in e.g. current or voltage. 4.2 Respiration and airflow: 4.3 Direct articulatory measurements, e.g., velotrace, strain gauges.

5 Electrophysiological techniques measure currents generated within or passed through the body:

6. Articulography uses radio-frequency location of tiny coils placed on the articulators. The location of each coil is determined by triangulation, according to signal strength.

7. Recording signals:

8. Signal processing of stored signals, e.g. waveform display, spectrography, f0 and formant tracking.