Air-stream mechanism exercises

1. Pulmonic egressive

English

In the following, pulmonic, egressive air produced for a vowel ([a], [ɑ] or [ǝ]) is stopped ([ʔ], [t]) or constricted ([h], [h]) at the glottis ([ʔ], [h], [h]) or by the tongue tip at the alveolar ridge ([t]). [ː] indicates length of the preceding sound.
 
at aʔ]
are [ʔɑː]
art [ʔɑːʔ] or [ʔɑːth]
tar [thɑː]
heart [hɑːʔ]
uh-uh [ʔǝʔǝ]
a-a [ʔaʔa]

2. Glottalic egressive (ejectives)

Amharic  
p’ [p’app’as] Sound ‘church patriarch’
t’ [t’ut] Sound ‘breast’
k’ [k’es] Sound ‘priest’
s’ [s’om] Sound ‘fast’ (n.)

Navajo
[t’] ‘just’ (adv.) [tooh] ‘large body of water’
[k’aaʔ] ‘arrow’ [k] ‘shoe’
[ts’in] ‘bone’ [tsin sitʹ] ‘mile’
[ts’aaʔ] ‘basket’ [tsah] ‘needle’

3. Glottalic ingressive (implosives)

Sindhi
[ɓarʊ ] Sound ‘child’ [buʈʊ] Sound ‘shoes’
[ɖarʊ] Sound ‘crevice’ [dʊnʊ] Sound ’navel’
[ɠro] Sound ‘heavy’ [ɡano] Sound ‘song’

4. Velaric ingressive (clicks)

Non-linguistic vocal sounds in English
bilabial ‘kiss kiss’

[ʘʘ]

dental ‘tut tut’ [| |]
alveolar lateral ‘gee up’ [|| ||]
postalveolar ‘tick tock’ [! !]

Xhosa
[uk|ola]  ‘to grind fine’
[uk!oɓa]  ‘to break stones’
[||olo] ‘peace’
[uk||hoɓa]  ‘to arm oneself’