Air-stream mechanism exercises

1. Pulmonic egressive

English

In the following, pulmonic, egressive air produced for a vowel ([a], [ ɑ ] or [ ǝ ]) is stopped ([ ʔ], [t]) or constricted ([h], [h]) at the glottis ([ʔ], [h], [h ]) or by the tongue tip at the alveolar ridge ([t]). [ ː] indicates length of the preceding sound.
 
at aʔ]
are [ʔɑː]
art [ʔɑːʔ] or [ʔɑːth]
tar [thɑː]
heart [hɑːʔ]
uh-uh [ʔǝʔǝ]
a-a [ʔaʔa]

2. Glottalic egressive (ejectives)

Amharic
 
 
p' [p'app'as] Sound `church patriarch'
t' [t'ut] Sound `breast'
k' [k'es] Sound `priest'
s' [s'om] Sound `fast' (n.)

Navajo
 
 
[t'áá] `just' (adv.) [tooh] `large body of water'
[k'aaʔ] `arrow' [ké] `shoe'
[ts'in] `bone' [tsin sitãʹ] `mile'
[ts'aaʔ] `basket' [tsah] `needle'

3. Glottalic ingressive (implosives)

Sindhi
 
[ɓ arʊ ] Sound `child' [buʈ ʊ] Sound `shoes'
[ɖ arʊ] Sound `crevice' [dʊnʊ] Sound 'navel'
[ɠ ëro] Sound `heavy' [ɡano] Sound `song'

4. Velaric ingressive (clicks)

Non-linguistic vocal sounds in English
 
bilabial `kiss kiss'

[ʘʘ]

dental `tut tut' [| |]
alveolar lateral `gee up' [|| ||]
postalveolar `tick tock' [! !]

Xhosa
 
[ukú|ola]  `to grind fine'
[ukú!o ɓa]  `to break stones'
[ú||olo] `peace'
[ukú||hoɓa]  `to arm oneself'