Goldsmith (1981) proposed that English lexical stress could be characterised
by a MHL autosegmental melody, in which the H tone corresponds with the
strongest stress, marked with a *:
Liberman (1975) pursued the same approach to characterise English intonation more generally. For example, he identified a LHM "calling" intonation, in which the H tone docks onto the main stress, and the initial L tone spreads in the usual autosegmental fashion to all pre-stress syllables:
The fruition of this line of research is seen in Pierrehumbert (1980) and subsequent work from the same perspective (e.g. Liberman and Pierrehumbert 1984, Beckman and Pierrehumbert 1986, Pierrehumbert and Beckman 1988).
2. Types of tones
Pierrehumbert (1980) distinguished between different types of tonal targets. We have seen various examples of dynamic accents, which are the head elements of intonational phrases. In addition, Pierrehumbert proposed to use H and L boundary tones at the beginning and end of major phrases, as well as a H or L phrase accent at the end of each intermediate phrase. Unlike standard autosegmental theory, Pierrehumbert did not employ spreading to derive the tone of unaccented syllables, but saw that as a matter of phonetic interpolation between phonologically-specified targets. In other words, the phonological representation of intonation is phonetically underspecified.
3. Same text, different tunes
Refer to figs. 1.1 and 1.2 on the examples handout.
5. Boundary tones
6. Pierrehumbert's Bitonal Pitch Accents
L*+H- "Scoop". A low tone with
sharp rise to a high peak. See fig. 1.1 D.
L-+H* "Rising peak". A high peak preceded by a sharp rise from a valley in the lowest part of the pitch range.
H*+L- A H* that induces following downstep. (Abandoned since Silverman et al. 1992). See fig. 1.1 C.
H-+L* Downstepped H that induces downstep on later H's. Characteristic of catathesis e.g.
H*+H- (Abandoned after Liberman and Pierrehumbert 1984).
I really believe Ebenezer is a dealer in magnesium | | | | | H* H-+L* H-+L* H-+L* H-+L* L- L%
7. The grammar of tonal sequences
Each (American) English intonational phrase, then, has the following
|Optional intial boundary tone: one of||One or more pitch accents: one of||A phrase accent: one of||A final boundary tone: one of|
Pierrehumbert (1980) characterised this structure by a finite-state transition network.
Ladd (1992, 1996), Beckman and Pierrehumbert (1986)
Beckman, M. E. and G. M. Ayers (1994) Guidelines for ToBI labelling (version 2.0) Electronic document /opt/tobi/TOBI-TRAINING/labelling_guide-V2.ASCII on OUPLSun.
Beckman, M. E. and J. B. Pierrehumbert (1986) Intonational structure in Japanese and English. Phonology Yearbook 3. 255-309.
Goldsmith, J. (1981) English as a Tone Language. In D. Goyvaerts, ed. Phonology in the 1980's. Ghent: Story-Scientia. Circulated in 1974.
Ladd, D. R. (1992) An introduction to intonational phonology. In G. J. Docherty and D. R. Ladd, eds. Papers in Laboratory Phonology II: Gesture, Segment, Prosody. Cambridge University Press. 321-334.
Ladd, D. R. (1996) Intonational Phonology. Cambridge University Press.
Liberman, M. (1975) The Intonation System of English. PhD dissertation, MIT. [IULC edition, 1978]
Liberman, M. and J. Pierrehumbert (1984) Intonational Invariance under Changes in Pitch Range and Length. In M. Aronoff and R. T. Oehrle, eds. Language Sound Structure: Studies in Phonology Presented to Morris Halle by His Teacher and Students. MIT Press. 157-233.
Pierrehumbert, J. B. (1980) The Phonology and Phonetics of English Intonation. PhD dissertation, MIT. [IULC edition, 1987].
Silverman, K., M. Beckman, J. Pitrelli, M. Ostendorf, C. Wightman, P. Price, J. Pierrehumbert and J. Hirschberg (1992) ToBI: A Standard for Labeling English Prosody. In J. J. Ohala, T. M. Nearey, B. L. Derwing, M. M. Hodge and G. E. Wiebe, eds. ICSLP 92 Proceedings: 1992 International Conference on Spoken Language Processing. Volume 2. Department of Linguistics, University of Alberta. 867-870.