Phonation exercises

Develop your perception, production and understanding of the various states of the glottis by practicing all the phonation types in initial, medial and final positions:
 



Initial



Medial
Final
1. Glottal stop  

ʔɑ





ɑʔɑ


ɑʔ

2. Creaky voice

ɑ̰̰ɑ




ɑɑ̰̰ɑ


ɑɑ̰̰

3. Breathy voice
ɦɑ



ɑɦɑ


ɑɦ

4. Whisper/voicelessness

hɑ





ɑhɑ

ɑh

Some real words to practise (note that the acute accent indicates high pitch):
 

Shona (western)
 

  

Shona (eastern)  









lha
to throw away
  
mɦp
wind
kɦa
to come

femɦ
to smell
ɦla
to be full

fem
to breathe
hoko
monkey

mɦuk
animal





muk
to get up





nɦŋga
pumpkin





naŋg
peace

Audio examples:
 

1. Glottal stop  
Arabic ‘asked’  saʔala  

 




Hebrew ‘light’  ʔor














2. Creaky voice
Mazatec ‘buttocks’   ndǽ̰
vs. plain voiced ‘seed’
 tʰǽ
3. Breathy voice
Mazatec ‘horse’  ndǽ̤






Dutch hoed ‘hat’  ɦut






Hindi ‘brow’

 bɦɑl


vs. plain voiced ‘hair’
 bɑl


Hindi ‘knife edge’  ɦɑɾ
vs. ‘lentil’

 ɑl



Hindi ‘bundle’  gɦɑn
vs. ‘cheek’
 gɑl










4. Whisper/voicelessness
Japanese くっ付けました
kuttsukemashita

‘pressed-attached’

 kɯ̥tːsɯ̥̥kemaʃta




The Mazatec examples were downloaded from the UCLA Phonetics Lab Archive. The other examples are from a database of audio examples relating to the IPA Handbook.