Pitch examples

1. Pitch and length in Croatian ("pitch accent")

Long falling

Short falling
Listen to Croation tek 'appetite' tːk tek `appetite'
Listen to Croation tek 'only' tk tek `only'

Long rising

Short falling
Listen to Croatian vile 'fairies' ʋǐːle vile `fairies'
Listen to Croatian vile 'hayfork' ʋle vile `hayfork'
Listen to Croatian duga 'rainbow' ːɡa duga `rainbow'
Listen to Croatian duga 'stave' dɡa duga `stave'


Listen to Croatian kuca 'of the houses' kːtɕaː kuća `houses' (gen.)
Listen to Croatian kuca 'a house' ktɕa kuća `a house'

2. Lexical tone in Cantonese

High level Listen to Cantonese 'silk' s `silk'
Mid level Listen to Cantonese 'to try' sii `to try'
Low-mid level Listen to Cantonese 'matter' s `matter'
Low fall Listen to Cantonese 'time' si `time'
High rise Listen to Cantonese 'history' si `history'
Low rise Listen to Cantonese 'city' si `city'


i) Transcribe the intonation of the following two sentences of Kassem, a language of Ghana (W. Africa). The sentences are written here in the normal orthography of Kassem. (As well as listening to the whole sentences, you can click listen a word or two at a time by clicking on them.) Also, mark out the various phonation types employed in these utterances.

Listen to sentence 1 Sentence 1: Avio di Awia mo magi nikantɔgɔ si ba biri dam.
Listen to sentence 2 Sentence 2: Kanto manŋa ni mo chovelo makia di o wwaro garivɔ.

ii) Read Ladefoged Vowels and Consonants chapter 2.