Pitch examples

1. Pitch and length in Croatian ("pitch accent")

Long falling

Short falling
Listen to Croation tek 'appetite' tːk tek ‘appetite’
Listen to Croation tek 'only' tk tek ‘only’

Long rising

Short falling
Listen to Croatian vile 'fairies' ʋǐːle vile ‘fairies‘
Listen to Croatian vile 'hayfork' ʋle vile ‘hayfork’
Listen to Croatian duga 'rainbow' dǔːɡa duga ‘rainbow‘
Listen to Croatian duga 'stave' dɡa duga ‘stave’


Listen to Croatian kuca 'of the houses' kːtɕaː kuća ‘houses‘ (gen.)
Listen to Croatian kuca 'a house' ktɕa kuća ‘a house’

2. Lexical tone in Cantonese

High level Listen to Cantonese 'silk' s 丝 ‘silk’
Mid level Listen to Cantonese 'to try' sii ‘to try’
Low-mid level Listen to Cantonese 'matter' s ‘matter’
Low fall Listen to Cantonese 'time' si ‘time’
High rise Listen to Cantonese 'history' si ‘history’
Low rise Listen to Cantonese 'city' si 市 ‘city’


i) Transcribe the intonation of the following two sentences of Kassem, a language of Ghana (W. Africa). The sentences are written here in the normal orthography of Kassem. (As well as listening to the whole sentences, you can click listen a word or two at a time by clicking on them.) Also, mark out the various phonation types employed in these utterances.

Listen to sentence 1 Sentence 1: Avio di Awia mo magi nikantɔgɔ si ba biri dam.
Listen to sentence 2 Sentence 2: Kanto manŋa ni mo chovelo makia di o wwaro garivɔ.

ii) Read Ladefoged Vowels and Consonants chapter 2.