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Phonetics Laboratory
Faculty of Linguistics, Philology, and Phonetics

Speech synthesis

Techniques used to generate synthetic speech

  • waveform concatenation
  • formant synthesis
  • articulatory synthesis

For a recent introduction to the field see Keller 1994.


YorkTalk and IPOX use formant synthesis because

  • unlike waveform concatenation, it offers fine-grained control over speech output
  • it is relatively easy to obtain data for a formant synthesizer


  • Why is so little progress made in Speech Synthesis research?


  • too much engineering
  • emphasis on robustness rather than completeness
  • linguistic model based on SPE
  • phonetic model based on segmental units


  • computational linguistics
  • speech generation rather than text-to-speech conversion
  • linguistic model based on prosodic theory
  • phonetic model based on overlapping constituents

Arthur Dirksen / adirksen@prl.philps.nl / January 1995