A. Principal texts: the first two, in particular, are highly recommended for purchase
International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press.
Ladefoged, P. (2001) Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages. Blackwell.
Roca, I. (1994) Generative Phonology. Routledge.
B. Reference and background reading
Catford, J. C. (1977) Fundamental Problems in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press.
Ladefoged, P. and I. Maddieson (1996) The Sounds of the World's Languages. Blackwell.
Jakobson, R. and L. R. Waugh (1979) The Sound Shape of Language. Harvester Press. Reprinted in Roman Jakobson's Collected Works. Mouton.
Abercrombie, D. (1965) Studies in Phonetics and Linguistics. Oxford University Press. Chapters 3-4.
Abercrombie, D. (1991) Fifty Years in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. Chapter 9.
Gimson, A. C. (1962) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Edward Arnold. There are also several later revised editions edited by Ramsaran and Cruttenden.
Jones, D. (1960) An Outline of English Phonetics. Heffer. (Numerous editions at other dates.) Especially chapters XVI (Strong and weak forms), XXVI-XXVIII (Assimilation, Rhythm), XXXII (Syllabification) and Appendix A (Transcription).
Wells, J. C. (1990) Syllabification and Allophony. Chapter 8 of S. Ramsaran, ed. Studies in the Pronunciation of English. Routledge. (Avoid the temptation to get immersed in other papers in this volume.)
Phonetics and phonology of selected language families/areas
Africa: Clements, G. N. (2000) Phonology. Chapter 6 of B. Heine and D. Nurse (eds) African Languages: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press.
North America: Mithun, M. (1999) The languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1.
Former Soviet Union: Comrie, B. (1981) The languages of the Soviet Union. A chapter is devoted to each language family: thus, refer to sections 2.2 (Altaic), 3.2 (Uralic), and especially 5.2 (Caucasian).
East and South-East Asia: Comrie, B., ed. (1990) The major languages of East and South-East Asia. (First published in 1987 as part of the larger work The World's Major Languages.) Croom Helm. There is not a great deal on the phonology of each language or language family, but it is nevertheless an interesting survey. The following sections are the most relevant: Chapter 2, section 2 (Thai phonology); chapter 3, section 2 (Vietnamese phonology); chapter 6, section 2 (Burmese phonology); chapter 8, section 2 (Korean phonology); chapter 10, section 2 (Malay phonology).
Australia: Dixon, R. M. W. (1980) The languages of Australia. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.
See also Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996) and the IPA handbook, listed
C. Specific topics
Lass = N. J. Lass (1996) Principles of Experimental Phonetics. Mosby.
1. Coarticulation and models of speech production
Fowler, C. A. and E. Saltzman (1993) Coordination and coarticulation in speech production. Language and Speech 36, 171-195.
Kent, R. D., S. G. Adams and G. S. Turner (1996) Models of speech production. Lass ch. 1.
Kent, R. D. and F. D. Minifie (1977) Coarticulation in recent speech production models. Journal of Phonetics 5, 115-133.
Keating, P. A. (1990) The window model of coarticulation: articulatory evidence. In J. Kingston and M. E. Beckman, eds. Papers in Laboratory Phonology 1: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech. 451-470.
Whalen, D. H. (1990) Coarticulation is largely planned. Journal of Phonetics 18, 3-35.
West P. (1999). The extent of coarticulation of English liquids: An acoustic and articulatory study. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Vol. 3, 1901-4.
a) `Coarticulation is a regrettable by-product of the artificial division of speech into discrete segments.' Discuss. 
b) Why does coarticulation occur? 
c) What are the main issues to be accounted for by a theory of speech
production? Describe how TWO different theories have addressed these issues.
(cf. Kent, Adams and Turner review question 1).
d) Describe, in outline, the components of a composite (i.e. complete)
model of speech production. 
(cf. Kent, Adams and Turner review question 7).
e) Kent, Adams and Turner review questions 2 or 4.
2. Approaches to speech perception
Goldinger, S. D., D. B. Pisoni and P. A. Luce (1996) Speech perception and spoken word recognition: research and theory. Lass ch. 8.
a) What is the evidence for categorial perception of phonological contrasts?
3. Phonetic acquisition
Jusczyk, P. W. (1996) Developmental speech perception. Lass ch. 9.
4. Experimental methodology
Tone and intonation:
Bruce Hayes, Introductory Phonology, chapter 15
Alan Cruttenden (1986) Intonation. Cambridge University Press (especially chapters 1, 3, 4, and 6)
Robert D. Ladd (1996) Intonational Phonology. Cambridge U. P. (especially chapters 1 and 2)
Chapter 10 of San Duanmu (2000) The Phonology of Standard Chinese. OUP
focusses more on tone than intonation.
Hayes chapter 14, mainly on the (abstract) phonological
principles of stress placement
Williams, B. (1986) An acoustic study of some features of Welsh prosody. In Catherine Johns-Lewis, ed. Intonation in Discourse. 35-51. (Earlier version of same paper: Williams, B. (1982) The Problem of Stress in Welsh. Cambridge Papers in Phonetics and Experimental Linguistics Vol. 1. Department of Linguistics, University of Cambridge.
a) Explain the terms stress, accent and rhythm, and how they are related. (2006)
b) How do languages vary in their use of pitch, and how do phonological theories accommodate the different possibilities. (2006)
c) How have the insights of autosegmental phonology of tone languages been applied to intonation.
6. Non-linear phonology
Anderson, S. R. (1976) Nasal consonants and the internal structure of segments. Language 52.2, 326-344.
Goldsmith, J. (1976) An overview of Autosegmental Phonology. [G8]
Prince, A. S. (1984) Phonology with tiers. [G15]
Clements, G. N. (1985) The geometry of phonological features. [G11]
a) Explain the problems that contour tones, diphthongs, and
affricates present to segmental phonological theory, and how
autosegmental phonology addresses them. (2006)
b) [This relates more particularly to the Clements (1985) paper.] What is an autosegmental tier? Can any group of phonological features spread?
7. Constraint-based phonology
8. The phonetics-phonology interface