Advanced Undergraduate Phonetics Reading List

A. Principal texts: the first two, in particular, are highly recommended for purchase

International Phonetic Association (1999) Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. Cambridge University Press.

Ladefoged, P. (2001) Vowels and Consonants: An Introduction to the Sounds of Languages. Blackwell.

Roca, I. (1994) Generative Phonology. Routledge.

B. Reference and background reading


Catford, J. C. (1977) Fundamental Problems in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press.

Ladefoged, P. and I. Maddieson (1996) The Sounds of the World's Languages. Blackwell.


Jakobson, R. and L. R. Waugh (1979) The Sound Shape of Language. Harvester Press. Reprinted in Roman Jakobson's Collected Works. Mouton.


Abercrombie, D. (1965) Studies in Phonetics and Linguistics. Oxford University Press. Chapters 3-4.

Abercrombie, D. (1991) Fifty Years in Phonetics. Edinburgh University Press. Chapter 9.

Gimson, A. C. (1962) An Introduction to the Pronunciation of English. Edward Arnold. There are also several later revised editions edited by Ramsaran and Cruttenden.

Jones, D. (1960) An Outline of English Phonetics. Heffer. (Numerous editions at other dates.) Especially chapters XVI (Strong and weak forms), XXVI-XXVIII (Assimilation, Rhythm), XXXII (Syllabification) and Appendix A (Transcription).

Wells, J. C. (1990) Syllabification and Allophony. Chapter 8 of S. Ramsaran, ed. Studies in the Pronunciation of English. Routledge. (Avoid the temptation to get immersed in other papers in this volume.)

Phonetics and phonology of selected language families/areas

Africa: Clements, G. N. (2000) Phonology. Chapter 6 of B. Heine and D. Nurse (eds) African Languages: an Introduction. Cambridge University Press.

North America: Mithun, M. (1999) The languages of Native North America. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 1.

Former Soviet Union: Comrie, B. (1981) The languages of the Soviet Union. A chapter is devoted to each language family: thus, refer to sections 2.2 (Altaic), 3.2 (Uralic), and especially 5.2 (Caucasian).

East and South-East Asia: Comrie, B., ed. (1990) The major languages of East and South-East Asia. (First published in 1987 as part of the larger work The World's Major Languages.) Croom Helm. There is not a great deal on the phonology of each language or language family, but it is nevertheless an interesting survey. The following sections are the most relevant: Chapter 2, section 2 (Thai phonology); chapter 3, section 2 (Vietnamese phonology); chapter 6, section 2 (Burmese phonology); chapter 8, section 2 (Korean phonology); chapter 10, section 2 (Malay phonology).

Australia: Dixon, R. M. W. (1980) The languages of Australia. Cambridge University Press. Chapter 6.

See also Ladefoged and Maddieson (1996) and the IPA handbook, listed above.

C. Specific topics

Lass = N. J. Lass (1996) Principles of Experimental Phonetics. Mosby.

1. Coarticulation and models of speech production

Fowler, C. A. and E. Saltzman (1993) Coordination and coarticulation in speech production. Language and Speech 36, 171-195.

Kent, R. D., S. G. Adams and G. S. Turner (1996) Models of speech production. Lass ch. 1.

Kent, R. D. and F. D. Minifie (1977) Coarticulation in recent speech production models. Journal of Phonetics 5, 115-133.

Keating, P. A. (1990) The window model of coarticulation: articulatory evidence. In J. Kingston and M. E. Beckman, eds. Papers in Laboratory Phonology 1: Between the Grammar and Physics of Speech. 451-470.

Whalen, D. H. (1990) Coarticulation is largely planned. Journal of Phonetics 18, 3-35.

West P. (1999). The extent of coarticulation of English liquids: An acoustic and articulatory study. Proceedings of the XIVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences. Vol. 3, 1901-4.

Essay topics:

a) `Coarticulation is a regrettable by-product of the artificial division of speech into discrete segments.' Discuss. [2002]

b) Why does coarticulation occur? [2002]

c) What are the main issues to be accounted for by a theory of speech production? Describe how TWO different theories have addressed these issues. [2002]
(cf. Kent, Adams and Turner review question 1).

d) Describe, in outline, the components of a composite (i.e. complete) model of speech production. [2002]
(cf. Kent, Adams and Turner review question 7).

e) Kent, Adams and Turner review questions 2 or 4.

2. Approaches to speech perception (a)

Goldinger, S. D., D. B. Pisoni and P. A. Luce (1996) Speech perception and spoken word recognition: research and theory. Lass Principles of Experimental Phonetics ch. 8.

Cooper, F. S., P. C. Delattre, A. M. Liberman, J. M. Borst and L. J. Gerstman (1952) Some Experiments on the Perception of Synthetic Speech Sounds. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America vol. 24, no. 6. 597-606.

Delattre, P. C., A. M. Liberman and F. S. Cooper (1955) Acoustic Loci and Transitional Cues for Consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America vol. 27, no. 4. 769-773.

Miller, G. A. and P. E. Nicely (1955) An analysis of perceptual confusions among some English consonants. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America vol. 27, 338-352. Reprinted in J. L. Miller, R. D. Kent and B. S. Atal, eds. (1991) Papers in Speech Communication: Speech Perception. Acoustical Society of America.

Liberman, A. M., F. S. Cooper, D. P. Shankweiler, and M. Studdert-­Kennedy (1967) Perception of the speech code. Psychological Review 74 (6), 431-461.

Lisker, L. and A. S. Abramson (1970) The voicing dimension: some experiments in comparative phonetics. Proceedings of the Sixth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Prague, 1967. Reprinted in Miller et al. (1991).

Approaches to speech perception (b)
- Variation in category boundaries
Ganong III, W. F., (1980) Phonetic categorization in auditory word perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 6 (1), 110-125.

Connine, C. M., D. Titone and J. Wang (1993) Auditory word recognition: extrinsic and intrinsic effects of word frequency. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 19, 81-94.

- Prototype theory
Kuhl, P. K. (1991) Human adults and human infants show a “perceptual magnet effect” for the prototypes of speech categories, monkeys do not. Perception and Psychophysics 50 (2), 93-107.

Kuhl, P. K. (1992) Speech prototypes: studies on the nature, function, ontogeny and phylogeny of the "centers" of speech categories. In Y. Tohkura, E. Vatikiotis-­Bateson and Y. Sagisaka, eds. Speech perception, production and linguistic structure. 239-264.

Kluender, K. R., A. J. Lotto and L. L. Holt (1998) Role of experience for language-specific functional mappings of vowel sounds. Journal of the Acoustical
of America 104, 3568-3582.

- Exemplar theory: a "gestalt" approach to speech perception
Johnson, K. (1997) Speech perception without speaker normalization. In K. Johnson and J. W. Mullenix, eds. Talker variability in speech processing. 145-165.

Goldinger, S. D. and T. Azuma (2003) Puzzle-solving science: the quixotic quest for units in speech perception. Journal of Phonetics 31, 305-320.

Essay topics:

a) What is the evidence for categorical perception of phonological contrasts?

b) Do listeners identify discrete phonological units? If so, how?

3. Prosody

Tone and intonation:

Bruce Hayes, Introductory Phonology, chapter 15
Alan Cruttenden (1986) Intonation. Cambridge University Press (especially chapters 1, 3, 4, and 6)
Robert D. Ladd (1996) Intonational Phonology. Cambridge U. P. (especially chapters 1 and 2)

Chapter 10 of San Duanmu (2000) The Phonology of Standard Chinese. OUP
focusses more on tone than intonation.


Hayes chapter 14, mainly on the (abstract) phonological principles of stress placement

Williams, B. (1986) An acoustic study of some features of Welsh prosody. In Catherine Johns-Lewis, ed. Intonation in Discourse. 35-51. (Earlier version of same paper: Williams, B. (1982) The Problem of Stress in Welsh. Cambridge Papers in Phonetics and Experimental Linguistics Vol. 1. Department of Linguistics, University of Cambridge.

Essay topics:

a) Explain the terms stress, accent and rhythm, and how they are related. (2006)

b) How do languages vary in their use of pitch, and how do phonological theories accommodate the different possibilities. (2006)

c) How have the insights of autosegmental phonology of tone languages been applied to intonation.

4. Non-linear phonology

Anderson, S. R. (1976) Nasal consonants and the internal structure of segments. Language 52.2, 326-344.

Goldsmith, J. (1976) An overview of Autosegmental Phonology. [G8]

Prince, A. S. (1984) Phonology with tiers. [G15]

Clements, G. N. (1985) The geometry of phonological features. [G11]

Essay topics:

a) Explain the problems that contour tones, diphthongs, and affricates present to segmental phonological theory, and how autosegmental phonology addresses them. (2006)

b) [This relates more particularly to the Clements (1985) paper.] What is an autosegmental tier? Can any group of phonological features spread?

5. Constraint-based phonology

Essay topics:

6. The phonetics-phonology interface

Chomsky, N. and M. Halle (1968) The Sound Pattern of English  pp. 293-8.
Mohanan, K. P. (1986) The Theory of Lexical Phonology pp. 154-181.
Halle, M. (1983) On distinctive features and their articulatory implementation. Natural Language and Lingusitic Theory 1, 91-105.
Keating, P. A. (1988) The phonology-phonetics interface. In F. Newmeyer (ed.) The Cambridge Linguistic Survey, vol. I: Linguistic Theory: Foundations 281-302.
Ladefoged, P. (1988) The many interfaces between phonetics and phonology. UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics 70, 13-23.

Essay topics: How can speech phenomena be divided between phonetics and phonology?