Audio derivations of English words from Proto-Indo-European, and from Proto-Indo-European into selected "Eastern" languages

An "Ancient Sounds" Project

This is a long-term work in progress, planned for some sort of completion in 2023. Until then, please excuse the gaps.

The lexicon below presents audio simulations illustrating how over 340 spoken English words could plausibly have developed from their Proto-Indo-European ancestral pronunciations, and how those ancestral pronunciations developed into various "Eastern" languages. In the middle column, I use a conventional "philological" transcription, together with a proposed phonetic transcription in IPA notation. In the right-hand column, a simplified phonetic notation with some English spelling conventions is used to transliterate languages written in non-Roman scripts, rather than the various different and inconsistent scholarly notation systems used in philological works. Note that the meanings of the words in the middle and right-hand columns are often not exactly the same as the English words, because often the meanings of words have shifted. Here I am only concerned with related words whose sounds have evolved, ignoring any changes in meaning.

Because recordings of ancestral pronunciations do not actually exist, I sometimes have to use only approximately similar sounds instead, in which case please excuse some inaccuracies. And since we have no way of knowing exactly how the ancestral forms of words were pronounced, please be aware that all my simulations are "my best guess, given the available knowledge, recordings, and the limits of my software". By all means send your comments, corrections etc. by email to john.coleman@phon.ox.ac.uk, or on Twitter to @sounds_ancient

Click on any of the links to hear my audio simulations of the words' pronunciations and how they changed over thousands of years.
English words come from Proto-Indo-European ancestor (mainly following Ringe, Kroonen, with my own phonetic interpretations) which also developed into Examples of "Eastern" relatives
a (see also "an", "one") comes from *óin-os < *h₁oi-no-s [oinos]
developed into Albanian një
acre
comes from *h₂eǵ-ro-s [ɐg̟ʲrós], earlier [ħɐg̟ʲrós] developed into
Sanskrit अज्र ajra, that developed into Hindi ajira
after comes from *h₂ep-tero- [aptərə], stem *h₂ep- [ap], earlier [ħɐp] *h₂ep-ér- [apér] developed into  Sanskrit अपर apara
ale comes from *h₂el-u-t [ħɐɫʊt] < [ħɛlʊt]
borrowed (from Germanic) into
Ossetian aluton (no recordings available)
borrowed into
Finnish olut
all comes from *h₂el-nó- [ħɐln-] developed into Pashto هر har
am comes from *hés-mi [əsmi]
developed into
Sanskrit अस्मि asmi
an (see also "a", "any", "one") comes from *óin-os < *h₁oi-no-s [oinos]
developed into Albanian një
angle comes from *h₂enk-ul-ó- [aŋk-], earlier [ħaŋk-] developed into
Ossetian æнгуыр angur


*h₂enk- [ħaŋk] also developed into Sanskrit अङ्क anka
ankle comes from *h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl], stem *h₂eng-, earlier [ħæŋg-] developed into Persian انگشت angusht
any (see also "an" and "one") comes from *óin-os < *hoi-no-s [oinos] developed into Albanian një
apple comes from
*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] developed into Lithuanian obuolys



*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] also developed into South Slavic e.g. Macedonian jabolko, which further developed to Bosnian jabuka
arm comes from
*h₂erH-mos [ħerəmos] developed into
Sanskrit ईर्म irma
ash tree comes from
*h₃esk- [osk], earlier [hʷosk]
developed into
Armenian հաճարի hachari
ask comes from
*h₂isḱo- [ɑisko-], earlier [ħɑisko-] developed into
Hindi इच्छा ichaa
bade [bad]

comes from
*bʰodʰ- (a form of *bʰedʰ-) or *gʷʰedʰ- developed into
Bosnian žedan
bade [beɪd] also comes from *bʰodʰ-

bairn comes from *bʰor-no- (a form of bʰer-; see "bear" below) developed into Sanskrit भरण bharana
barrow comes from Proto-Germanic *berga-, from *bʰerǵʰ-os developed into Balochi برز ئه  borza
be comes from *bʰuh₂ [bʱuʕ] > [bʱuɑ̆] developed into Persian بودن budan
to bear comes from *bʰer- developed into Sanskrit भर bhar, Persian بار bar
beat comes from
*bʰóud- developed into
Armenian բութ but
beech
(see also "book")
comes from
*bʰāǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier *bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ] 
Albanian bung (no recordings available)
bellows comes from *bʰolǵʰis developed into Persian بالش balesh
belly
also comes from *bʰolǵʰis

bid comes from
*bʰeudʰ- developed into
Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha
bind comes from
*bʰéndʰ- developed into
Persian بند band
bite comes from
*bʰéid-
developed into
Sanskrit भिद् bhid-



also developed into Ancient Greek φείδομαι pheidomai
black comes from
*bʰléiǵ-
developed into
Sanskrit भ्रज bhraj(ati)
bleach also comes from *bʰléiǵ-

bleat comes from
*bʰleh₁- [bʱle:], earlier [bʱleə], [bʱleh] developed into
Bosnian brbliati
blind comes from
*bʰlondʰ-.   A different PIE word, *h₂endʰ-o- [andʰo], developed into Pashto ړوند rund
blossom comes from
*bʰlō- [bʱlo:] < *bʰléh₃-e- [bʱléŏə] developed into
Bengali  ফুল phul
book (see also "beech") comes from *bʰāǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier *bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ]

to bore comes from
*bʰr(H)-eh₂-ie- [bʰrhɐ]-, earlier perhaps [bʰrheħ]- developed into
Sanskrit भारती bharati
bottom comes from
*bʰudʰ-mén-
developed into
Persian بن‎ bun
bough comes from
*bʰaǵʰ-u- < *bʰeh₂ǵʰ-u- 
developed into
Persian بازو bazu
bright comes from
*bʰerh₁ǵ-
developed into
Persian برازیدن‎  barozidan
bristle
*bʰr̩stí

Sanskrit भृष्टि bhrshti
brother
*bʰréh₂tēr [bʱráte:r]
Hindi भ्राता bhraata
brow
*h₃bʰruH- [ŏbʰruə]

Urdu ابرو abru
call comes from
*gols-
developed into
Bosnian glas
can, know
*ǵnéh- [g̟neŏ]

Urdu جاننا jaanna
care comes from
*ǵh̩₂r- [g̟ɐr]
developed into
Persian عذر ozr
carve
*gerbʰ-

Albanian gervisht
chin
*ǵenu

Persian چانه chaane
choose
*ǵéus-

Persian دوست‎ duust
cold
*ǵólH-
Persian سرد sard
come
*gʷem-

Sanskrit गम् gam
corn, kernel
*ǵr̩h₂nó-

Hindi अजीर्ण ajiirna
cow
*gʷeh₃-u-
Persian گاو gov
crane
*gr-on-

Persian کلنگ kolang
cud
*gʷétu

Sanskrit जतु jatu
cycle
*kʷekʷlos [kwekʷlos]
Urdu چکر chakar
dare, durst
*dʰors-

Sanskrit  darshati
daughter
*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugɐté:r], earlier [dʱugħté:r]
Urdu دختر duhter
day, dawn
*dʰegʷʰ-

Urdu داغ dagh
deed, do
*dʰéh₁-ti-

Sanskrit धातु dhatu
deep
*dʰeubʰ-

Albanian det
deer
*dʰeus-

Lithuanian dvasia
delve
*dʰelbʰ-

Bosnian dleto
dew
*dʰuh₂-

Sanskrit धव् dhav
door
*dʰur-

Persian درب dar
dream
*dʰrougʰ-mo-

Persian دروغ doroog
drive

*dʰreibʰ
Hindi dharan
ear
*h₂éws
developed into
Persian گوش guush


*h₂éwses- developed into Lithuanian ausis
earth
*h₁ér
Zazaki her [ħer]
east
*h₂eus-

Sanskrit उषस् ushas
eat
*h₁éd- [ed]

Sanskrit अत्ति atti
edge
*h₂eḱ- [ħakʲ]

Persian آس aas
egg
*h₂ōu-ió-

Persian خایه‎  haye
eight
*oḱtṓu
Persian هشت hash
eke
*h₂éug-

Persian وخش vakhsh
elbow= ell+bow
*Heh₃l-én-eh₂- [holéna], earlier [heʍléneħ]

Persian ارنج aranj
else

*h₂él-io-s

Armenian այլ ayl
enough
*h₂noḱ- [anok]
perhaps earlier [ħanok]

Sanskrit नशति nashati
ewe
*héu-i- [howi] developed into Sanskrit अवि avi


*héu-i-s [howis] developed into Lithuanian avis
eye
*h₃okʷ [okʷ], a form of *h₃ekʷ [ʍekʷ]
Urdu آنکھ aankh
fallow
*polh₁ḱ -éh₂-

Sanskrit पलित palita
fare
*pór-e-

Persian پل pol
fart
*pérd-e-

Urdu پادری pardri
fast
*ph₂sth₂-o- [pastao], earlier [pħstħo]

Armenian հաստ hast
father
*ph₂tḗr [pɑ̥̥té:r], earlier [pħté:r]
Persian پدر‎  pedar
feather
*péth₂-r- [pétar], earlier [pétħr]
Urdu پَر par
fee
*péḱu

Hindi पशु pashu
few
*pau-

Persian پسر pesar
fiend
*ph₁-i-ont- [pi:ont]

Sanskrit पीयति piyati
fierce comes from *ʰwēr- developed into Persian شیر shir
fight
*peḱ-

Persian پشم pash
find
*pént-e-

Sanskrit पन्थासः panthaso
fire
*péh₂wr̩

Persian تیر pir
first, former
*pr̩H-mós

Hindi प्रथम pratham
five
*pénkwe

Urdu پانچ panch
flat, field
*plath₂us

Sanskrit पृथु prthu
flax
*plekt-

Sanskrit प्रश्न prashna
flow


Sanskrit अन्ववप्लु plavate (cf. Slovenian plavati)
foe


Sanskrit पिशुन pishuna
food, fodder
*peh₂- [peħ]=[peɑ̥̥]
Persian پاییدن payidan
foot
*pōds

Hindi पद pad
ford
*pértu, *pr̩téu-

Sanskrit पिपर्ति piparti
four
*kwetwṓr-

Persian چهار chahar
friend


Kurdish ئافراندن‎ afrandin
full


Persian پُر pur
gang


Urdu ٹانگ taang
garden


Persian کرت kart
ghost


Persian زشت‎ zesht
glad


Bosnian gladak
glee


Bosnian glumiti
go


Sanskrit जहाति jahati
gold, yellow
*ǵʰel-

Persian زرد zard
good, together


Sanskrit गध्य gadhya
goose, gander comes from *ǵʰans  developed into Urdu ہنس hans
groom


Persian زمی zami
hale, whole


Bosnian cijelo
hall


Sanskrit शाला shaala
hang


Sanskrit शङ्क shanka
hare


Sanskrit शश shasha
harvest, harrow


Urdu krpaan
have


Sanskrit कपटी kapati
head


Nepali कपाल kapaal
heart


Sanskrit हृदय hrdayam
hearth


Sanskrit कुषाकु kushaku
heaven


Urdu آسمان asman
hew


Bosnian kovač kovach
high


Sanskrit कुच kucha, Bosnian kuka
hold


Sanskrit कलयति kalayati
home
*ḱoimos < *ḱei-

Sanskrit शी shi
honey


Kurdish hengiv
hook


Persian چنگ  chang
horn


Urdu سر sar
hound


Sanskrit श्वन् shwan
hue


Persian سیاه siyah
hundred


Persian صد sad
I


Pashto  زه‎ za [zə]
is


Persian است ast
jowl comes from
*ĝebh- [dʒeb]
developed into
Urdu  جبڑا  jabra
kin, kind


Persian زادن‎ zadan
lean


Sanskrit श्रयते shrayate
lend


Persian ریختن richtan
let


Bosnian lijen liyen
lick


Persian لیس lis
lie (down)


Bosnian ležati lezhati
to (tell a) lie


Bosnian lagati
light (bright)


Urdu روشنی roshni
light (weight)


Hindi लघु laghu
lip


Persian لب lab
listen


Sanskrit श्रोष्यति shroshyati
lock


Hindi रुग्ण rugna
long comes from *dlonǵʰ- developed into Persian دراز deraz
loud


Sanskrit श्रुत shruta
love


Sanskrit लुभ्यति lubhyati
lust


Bosnian laskati
man


Bengali মানুষ manush
mane


Marathi मान maan
many


Bosnian mnogo
march


Persian مرز marz
mast


Bosnian most
may, might


Sanskrit मघ magha
mead (honey wine)
*medʰ-u-
developed into
Lithuanian medus



also developed into Sanskrit मधु madhu
meal, mill


Urdu ملنا malna
mere (lake)


Bosnian more
mete (out), empty


Sanskrit मस्ति masti
mid


Hindi मध्य madhye
milk


Sanskrit मर्जति marjati
mind


Bengali মানা mana
mingle


Sanskrit मचते machate
mirth


Sanskrit मुहु muhu
mist


Persian مه meh
moon, month


Urdu مہینا mahina
morn, morning


Bosnian mrak
moss


Bosnian mahovina
moth


Persian ملخ malakh
mother


Persian مادر modar
mould


Hindi मृदा mrda
mourn


Persian شمردن shemordan
mouse


Persian موش mush
much


Kurdish mazin
murder


Persian مردن mordan
nail


Persian ناخن nakhon
name


Urdu/Persian نام naam
navel


Persian ناف naf
nest


Hindi नीड़ nir
new


Urdu نیا nea
night
*nekʷt-s developed into Sanskrit नक्तम् naktam



also developed into Lithuanian naktis 
nine


Urdu/Persian نو nou
nose


Sanskrit नासा nasa
now


Sanskrit नु nu
off


Sanskrit अप apa
one (see also "an") comes from
*óin-os < *h₁oi-no-s [oinos] developed into Albanian një
ore


Persian آهن ahan
other


Sanskrit अन्तर antara
otter


Sanskrit उद्र udra
out


Persian از- az-
oven


Sanskrit उखा ukha
over


Persian ابر abar
owe, own


Sanskrit ईष्टे ishte
ox, oxen


Sanskrit उक्षन् ukshan
path


Marathi पथ path
queen


Persian زن zan
quell/kill


Bosnian žaoka zhaoka
quern


Persian گران geran
quick


Persian جیوه jiive
quoth


Sanskrit गदति gad-
raw, cruel


Urdu خون khun
reck(-less)


Sanskrit ऋज् rj
red


Hindi रुधिर rudhir
reek


Persian اروغ arog
rib


Bosnian rebro
right


Persian راست  rast
root


Persian ریشه risheh
rush (reed)


Sanskrit रज्जु rajju
salt


Bosnian so
salve


Persian چرب charb
same


Persian هم ham
say


Sanskrit सच् sach-
sear


Persian خشک hoshk
seed, sow


Bosnian sijati siyati
sell


Bosnian slati
seven


Persian هفت haft
sew


Urdu سینا siina
shade, shadow


Persian سیاه siyah
shear


Persian/Urdu چرم charm
shoot


Persian چست chost
shove


Persian آشوب aashub
show


Hindi कवि kavi
sing/song/sang


Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai
sister


Sanskrit स्वसृ svasr
sit/set


Sanskrit सीदति sidati
six


Persian شش shish
small


Bosnian malo
smile


Sanskrit स्मयते smayate
smoke


Armenian մուխ mukh
snow


Sanskrit स्नेह sneha
son


Sanskrit सूनु sunu
sore


Ossetian хид khid
sorrow, sorry


Sanskrit सूर्क्षति surkshati
sour


Persian شور shur
spare


Persian سپردن sepordan
spark


Marathi पर्जन्य Parjanya
spell


Armenian առասպել arraspel
spew


Persian تف tuf
spring


Sanskrit स्फूर्ज sphurja
staff


Persian ستبر setabr
stair


Sanskrit स्तिघ्नोति stighnoti
stall


Hindi स्थल sthal
stand


Persian ایستادن istaadan
star


Persian ستاره setare
stead


Hindi स्थिति sthiti
steer


Persian/Urdu ستون sutuun
summer


Sanskrit समा samaa
sun


Urdu سورج suraj
swear, answer


Ukrainian сва́рити swariti
sweat


Hindi स्वेद sveda
sweet


Sanskrit स्वादु swadu
swine, sow


Persian خوک khuj
tame


Persian دام dam
to tear


Persian دریدن daridan
ten


Urdu دس‎ das
that


Sanskrit तद् tad
thatch, stake


Punjabi ਠੱਗ thag
there


Sanskrit तर्हि tarhi
thin


Persian تنگ tang
third


Sanskrit तृतीय trtiya
thirst


Persian تشنگی teshnegi
thistle


Persian/Urdu تیز tiiz
thorn


Sanskrit तृण trnam
thou


Persian تو tu
three


Sanskrit त्रि tri
through, thorough


Sanskrit तिरस् tiras
thunder


Persian تندر tondar
timber


Sanskrit दम dama
time


Kurdish dem
to


Bosnian do
tongue


Sanskrit जिह्वा jihua
tooth
*h₁dónt-
developed into developed into
Lithuanian dantu
Punjabi ਦੰਦ danda
tree


Persian دار daar
two comes from *dwóh₁-
developed into Urdu and Persian دو doo
under


Sanskrit अधर adhara
up


Urdu اوپر uper
waggon


Sanskrit वह्नि wahni
wake


Persian بزرگ buzurg
was


Sanskrit सति vasati
warm


Urdu گرم garam
water


Sinhalese වතුර wature
to wax


Persian وخش‎  vakhsh
we


Sanskrit वयम् vayam
wear


Sanskrit वस्ते vaste
weave



Persian بافتن baaftan
wed


Persian خویدوده hueydode
weigh


Urdu بہنا behna
were(wolf)


Sanskrit वीर vira
west


Bosnian večer vecher
what


Sanskrit कद् kad
wheat, white comes from *ḱʷoit-ós developed into Persian سفید sefid
wheel
*kʷel
Persian چریدن charidan
where
*kwor

Sanskrit कर्हि karhi





whether comes from *kʷóteros [kwótero] developed into Sanskrit कतर katara
while comes from *kʷih- [kʷiə] developed into Persian شاد shad
who comes from *kʷós [kʷo] developed into Kurdish ki, Ossetian chi
widow comes from *hwidʰewh₂- [hwidʰəwaħ] developed into Hindi विधवा vidhva
will comes from *wel- [wel] developed into Sanskrit वृणोति vrnoti
(the) wind comes from *h₂wehnt- [went] developed into Sanskrit वाति vata, Persian باد bad





-wise (manner) comes from *weid- [weɪd] developed into Hindi वेद ved
wit comes from *wid- [wid] developed into Sanskrit वेद veda
wolf comes from *wĺ̩kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] developed into
developed into
Lithuanian vilkas
Persian گرگ gorg
wool
*wĺ̩hneh₂- [wl̩(ə)na]
developed into Urdu اون uun
word comes from *wr̩ht- [wɹ̩tʰ] developed into Hindi व्रत vrat
work comes from *wr̩ǵ- [wɹ̩g̟̊] developed into Persian ورز varz
worm
*wr̩mi- < *kʷr̩mis- [kwɹ̩m] developed into Urdu کِرم kirm
year comes from *yeh-ro- [ja:rɵ]
developed into Bosnian jar yar
yearn comes from *ǵʰerh-no- [g̟ɦar] *ǵʰr̩-yé-ti developed into Sanskrit हर्यति haryati
yeast comes from *yes-tu- [jestʰu̥] developed into Persian جوشیدن jushidan
yoke comes from 🔈 *yug-o- [jugo] developed into Persian یوغ yog
you comes from 🔈 *yu(H)-e [iuɦe] developed into Sanskrit यूयम् yuyam
young comes from 🔈 *h₂yun̩-ḱós [(ɐ)jueŋkos]
*h₂yun̩- [juen]-

developed into


Persian جوان javon